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Everything you need to know about Wilson Disease

Clinical Features in Patients with Wilson Disease


  • Asymptomatic hepatomegaly
  • Isolated splenomegaly
  • Persistently elevated serum aminotransferase activity (AST, ALT)
  • Fatty liver
  • Acute hepatitis
  • Resembling autoimmune hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis: compensated or decompensated
  • Acute liver failure


  • Movement disorders (tremor, involuntary movements)
  • Drooling, dysarthria
  • Rigid dystonia
  • Pseudobulbar palsy
  • Dysautonomia
  • Migraine headaches
  • Insomnia
  • Seizures


  • Depression
  • Neurotic behaviours
  • Personality changes
  • Psychosis

Other Systems

  • Ocular: Kayser-Fleischer rings, sunflower cataracts
  • Cutaneous: lunulae ceruleae
  • Renal abnormalities: aminoaciduria and nephrolithiasis
  • Skeletal abnormalities: premature osteoporosis and arthritis
  • Cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmias
  • Pancreatitis
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Menstrual irregularities; infertility, repeated miscarriages
If you need help in understanding what any of these terms are, please go to our page on definitions.
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Jean P. Perog
Jean P. Perog President
Jean is a retired CPA living in Merritt, British Columbia. She has WD and has a brother with WD. Jean also served as Treasurer of the Wilson Disease Association and is an active volunteer in her community.
Carol Terry
Carol Terry Secretary
Carol was diagnosed in 1973 with WD and is a retired US Government accountant. She helped found the WDA in 1983 and served as its President for ten years. She also served as Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary.
Mary L. Graper
Mary L. Graper VP Scientific Affairs
Mary has over 25 years experience as a volunteer leader, and is recognized for her creativity, organizational and leadership skills. She holds a B.S. degree in Education from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
Rachel Albert
Rachel Albert Vice President
Volunteering has been an important part of Rachel's life since childhood. Over the years, she has committed her time and energy to numerous non-profit organizations. She majored in psychology and graduated Magna Cum Laude from Amherst College. She also earned an M.P.H. in Geriatrics and Gerontology from Columbia University.
Jeanne A. Friedman
Jeanne A. Friedman
Jeanne is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and has WD. She has been with Wilson Disease Association since 2013 and lives in Kew Gardens, New York.
Stephen Walsh
Stephen Walsh Treasurer
Stephen lives in Boulder, Colorado and has a daughter with WD. He went to college at the University of Colorado and graduated with a B.S. in finance.

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