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Everything you need to know about Wilson Disease

kayser fleischer ring2019


Kayser-Fleischer Ring: Clinical sign. Brownish-yellow ring visible around the corneo-scleral junction (limbus). Consists of copper deposits in Descemet’s membrane, extending into the trabecular meshwork. Sign of Wilson’s disease. (Dictionary of Eye Terminology, 3rd edition; Barbara Cassin, Sheila A.B. Solomon)

Description and Location

Golden to greenish-brown annular deposition of copper located in the periphery (limbus) of the cornea (Descemet’s membrane). First appears as a superior crescent, then develops inferiorly and ultimately becomes circumferential. Usually requires a slit-lamp examination to detect rings in their early stage of formation.


Approximately 95% of WD patients presenting with neurological signs will have a K-F ring. Where as approximately 65% of WD patients presenting with hepatic signs will present with a ring.

Copper chelation therapy may cause fading and even disappearance of the corneal copper over time.

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Jean P. Perog
Jean P. Perog President
Jean is a retired CPA living in Merritt, British Columbia. She has WD and has a brother with WD. Jean also served as Treasurer of the Wilson Disease Association and is an active volunteer in her community.
Carol Terry
Carol Terry Secretary
Carol was diagnosed in 1973 with WD and is a retired US Government accountant. She helped found the WDA in 1983 and served as its President for ten years. She also served as Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary.
Mary L. Graper
Mary L. Graper VP Scientific Affairs
Mary has over 25 years experience as a volunteer leader, and is recognized for her creativity, organizational and leadership skills. She holds a B.S. degree in Education from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
Rachel Albert
Rachel Albert Vice President
Volunteering has been an important part of Rachel's life since childhood. Over the years, she has committed her time and energy to numerous non-profit organizations. She majored in psychology and graduated Magna Cum Laude from Amherst College. She also earned an M.P.H. in Geriatrics and Gerontology from Columbia University.
Jeanne A. Friedman
Jeanne A. Friedman
Jeanne is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and has WD. She has been with Wilson Disease Association since 2013 and lives in Kew Gardens, New York.
Stephen Walsh
Stephen Walsh Treasurer
Stephen lives in Boulder, Colorado and has a daughter with WD. He went to college at the University of Colorado and graduated with a B.S. in finance.

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